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Hosni Mubarak has been swept from power, but many questions remain. Will the Army cede power to the people? Will the organizers of the protests who have been arrested be freed? Will the corruption that pervades Egyptian society end? Reader Supported News is staying on this story until these and many other questions are answered.

A man waves an Egyptian flag from a car while celebrating the resignation of Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak in London, 02/11/11. (photo: Luke MacGregor/Reuters)
A man waves an Egyptian flag from a car while celebrating the resignation of Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak in London, 02/11/11. (photo: Luke MacGregor/Reuters)

RSN Special Coverage:
Egypt's Struggle for Democracy

Reader Supported News

20 February 11

RSN Special Coverage: Egypt's Struggle for Democracy


Egypt Holds 'Victory March' in Cairo


Live Updates From Egypt

Al Jazeera English

Reporting from Al Jazeera's headquarters in Doha. READ MORE


Protests in the Middle East - Live Updates

Guardian UK Blog

Follow the events across the region as they unfold. READ MORE


Egyptian Police Officer on the Lives Lost


Egypt's Coptics Hope for a Bright Future


Army Hopes to Turn Over Egypt to Civilian Rule by August

Andrew Hammond and Peter Millership, Reuters

Egypt's new military rulers said on Tuesday they hoped to hand power over to an elected civilian leadership within six months and that they had no desire to keep control following the overthrow of President Hosni Mubarak.

The remarks carried on the state agency were the clearest indication since Mubarak was forced to resign on Friday that the high command was committed to a brief timeframe for meeting the demands of pro-democracy protesters for a new start.

"The Higher Military Council expressed its hope to hand over power within six months to a civilian authority and a president elected in a peaceful and free manner that expresses the views of the people," an armed forces statement said. READ MORE


The Search for Egypt's Missing


The Camp That Toppled a President

BBC News

An interactive map of Cairo's central Tahrir Square. EXPLORE


Wael Ghonim's 60 Minutes Interview:
Egypt's New Age Revolution


Tension Persists in Egypt


Egypt's Military Eyes Constitutional Referendum

Marwa Awad and Tom Perry, Reuters

Egypt's new military rulers have given indications of new moves to share power with civilians and rapidly to amend the constitution by popular referendum, opposition activists and a British minister said on Monday.

Wael Ghonim, a Google executive detained then released for his part in the uprising that overthrew President Hosni Mubarak, said members of the military council had told him a referendum would be held on constitutional amendments in two months.

British Foreign Secretary William Hague said Egyptian Prime Minister Ahmed Shafik had told him that he would reshuffle his cabinet in the coming week to bring opposition figures into the line-up appointed by Mubarak last month.

Earlier, Egypt's new military rulers urged workers to return to their jobs on Monday and help restart an economy damaged by the uprising which ended Mubarak's 30-year rule but also sparked a growing wave of strikes. READ MORE

Egyptian Military Invokes Martial Law, Moves to Ban Protest

Democratic reform for the people of Egypt may not yet be at hand. These excerpts from a Guardian UK report yesterday paint a picture of an Egyptian military invoking martial law, banning civil disobedience and rejecting a speedy transfer of power to civilian rule.

Excerpts from the report:

"The Egyptian military has rejected the demands of pro-democracy protesters for a swift transfer of power to a civilian administration, saying it intends to rule by martial law until elections are held.

and ...

In a sign that the army will only tolerate a limited challenge to its power, it is expected to issue a communique on Monday saying that it will crack down on those creating "chaos and disorder" as well as effectively banning strikes. READ MORE


Egypt's Military Rulers Dissolve Parliament

Sarah El Deeb, Associated Press

Egypt's military leaders dissolved parliament and suspended the constitution Sunday, meeting two key demands of protesters who have been keeping up pressure for immediate steps to transition to democratic, civilian rule after forcing Hosni Mubarak out of power.

The military rulers that took over when Mubarak stepped down Friday and the caretaker government also set as a top priority the restoration of security, which collapsed during the 18 days of protests that toppled the regime.

The protesters had been pressing the ruling military council, led by Defense Minister Hussein Tantawi, to immediately move forward with the transition process by appointing a presidential council, dissolving the parliament and releasing detainees. READ MORE


Egypt's Police Protest for More Rights


Egypt's Protests - A Timeline

Guardian UK Blog

Follow the historic events as they unfolded here. READ MORE

Wealthy Egyptians Fear Change


Egypt's Military Rulers Under Pressure
From Protesters

Peter Millership and Yasmine Saleh, Reuters

Egypt's new military rulers, who have promised to hand power to civilians, are facing impatient protesters who want swift steps to prove their nation is set for democracy after Hosni Mubarak's overthrow.

The nation wakes up to its first working day on Sunday since Mubarak was toppled during the Egyptian weekend, and protest organizers have threatened more rallies if the military fails to meet their demands.

The military has given no timetable for the transition but says it is committed to civilian rule and democracy. A cabinet meeting, due later on Sunday, could provide some answers. READ MORE


WikiLeaks: Mohammed Hussein Tantawi Resistant to Change


A WikiLeaks cable from 2008, US Ambassador to Egypt Francis Ricciardone describes Tantawi

Washington interlocutors should be prepared to meet an aged and change-resistant Tantawi. Charming and courtly, he is, nonetheless mired in a post-Camp David military paradigm that has served his cohort's narrow interests for the last three decades. He and Mubarak are focused on regime stability and maintaining the status quo through the end of their time. They simply do not have the energy, inclination or world view to do anything differently. READ MORE


Elated Protesters 'Staying Put' In Tahrir Square

Craig Whitlock, Washington Post

Even as they celebrated their triumph over a dictator, many of Egypt's revolutionaries vowed Saturday to continue their peaceful occupation of Tahrir Square, saying their demands for democracy and accountability were still unmet. READ MORE


Post-Mubarak Era Dawns on Egypt

Al Jazeera

Egyptians have woken to a new dawn after 30 years of rule under Hosni Mubarak. As the Muslim call to prayer reverberated across Cairo on Saturday, the sound of horns honking in jubilation grew louder after a night when millions celebrated the fall of the former president, who has handed over power to the armed forces. After 18 days of rallies on Cairo's Tahrir Square, resisting police assaults and a last-ditch assault by Mubarak supporters, people packed not just the epicentre but, it seemed, every street and neighbourhood in the capital, in Alexandria and other cities and towns across the country. Through the night, fireworks cracked, cars honked under swathes of red, white and black Egyptian flags, people hoisted their children above their heads. Some took souvenir snaps with smiling soldiers on their tanks on city streets. All laughed and embraced in the hope of a new era. READ MORE


Uncharted Ground After Stunning End of Egypt's Regime

By Anthony Shadid, The New York Times

One revolution ended Friday. Another may soon begin.

In a moment that may prove as decisive to the Middle East as the 1967 Arab-Israeli war, 18 days of protest hurtled Egypt once again to the forefront of politics in the Middle East. In the uprising's ambition, young protesters, savvy with technology and more organized than their rulers, began to rewrite the formula that has underpinned an American-backed order: the nation in the service of a strongman.

The ecstatic moments of triumph in Tahrir Square seemed to wash away a lifetime of defeats and humiliations, invasions and occupations that, in the weeks before the revolution, had seemed to mark the bitterest time for both Egypt and the Arab world....

But in the gray light of dawn, Egypt will face the meaning of its revolution, as will an Arab world that shares its demographic of a younger generation taking the stage, posing challenges as myriad as Mr. Mubarak's departure was singular. READ MORE


Egypt's Remarkable 18 Days

Field Marshal Mohammed Hussein Tantawi,
New Face of Power in Cairo

Ian Black, Guardian UK

Field Marshal Mohammed Hussein Tantawi, the 75-year-old commander of Egypt's armed forces and head of the Supreme Military Council, is the new face of power in Cairo now that Hosni Mubarak has finally stepped down.

Tantawi is in charge of steering the country through political reforms that should change the way Egypt has been ruled for nearly 60 years - a prospect that is already sending shockwaves across the Arab world. It is a task which is also likely to pose problems for an institution that is keen on preserving its own power, privileges and status.

The military council is expected to quickly suspend both houses of parliament and rule with the civilian head of the supreme constitutional court for a transitional period of just a few months. READ MORE


Mubarak Resigns, Turns Over Power to Military

Reader Supported News Staff

In a rapid reversal of statements made only yesterday by Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak, his hand-picked vice president, Omar Suleiman, only moments ago appeared on Egyptian television and announced that Mubarak had resigned and turned over power to the Egyptian military.

The reaction from protesters across Egypt, in the streets for the 18th consecutive day, was one of jubilation, chanting "Egypt is Free!" It appears, by every measure, a successful revolution. The Associated Press quotes opposition leader Mohamed ElBaradei as saying, "This is the greatest day of my life. The country has been liberated after decades of repression," and he expects a "beautiful" transition of power.

Egypt's Supreme Military Council is expected to make a formal statement soon. In the US, President Barack Obama is expected to speak on events in Egypt at 3:00 PM Eastern Time.


Remarks by President Obama on Egypt

11 February 11 3:06 PM EST


Scenes from Tahrir Square:
The Revolution Victorious


Mubarak Steps Down, Egyptians Jubilant


Mubarak Steps Down, Ceding Power to Military

New York Times

President Hosni Mubarak of Egypt resigned his post and turned over all power to the military on Friday, ending his 30 years of autocratic rule and bowing to a historic popular uprising that has transformed politics in Egypt and around the Arab world. READ MORE


Statement of Egyptian Armed Forces

Al Jazeera English

Statement of Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces

In view of the successive developments by which the fate of the country is determined, the continuous monitoring of internal and external events, decisions taken to delegate the president's powers to Omar Suleiman, the vice-president, out of a belief in national responsibility to maintain stability and security of the homeland, the council has decided to ensure the implementation of the following measures:

- Immediate end of the state of emergency as soon as current circumstances end and settlement of appeals submitted following the presidential election concerned measures. Implementation of necessary legislations. Holding free and fair elections in light of the constitutional amendments.

- The Egyptian armed forces are committed to undertaking the legitimate demands of the people and seek to achieve them through following up the implementation of these measures in a timely manner, precisely and firmly until the peaceful transition of power to reach a free society to which people aspire.

- The armed forces affirm they would not prosecute honourable people who refused corruption and demanded for reform, and warn against harming security and safety of the nation and citizens. They also affirm the need for regularity of work at state facilities, and return of normal life to preserve property of our great people. May Allah protect the homeland and citizens."

Scenes from Tahrir Square:
Mubarak's Non-Resignation


Cairo Protests: An Interactive Map

Guardian UK



Stunning Observers, Mubarak Refuses to Abdicate

Reader Supported News Staff

Speaking in Cairo moments ago, Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak dispelled rumors that he was preparing for a quick relinquishment of power, announcing instead that he would not step down. Speaking on Egyptian television, Mubarak offered that he would delegate some of his powers to his vice president, Omar Suleiman. Details of what powers would be transferred to Suleiman, and when, were not discussed.

The immediate reaction from protesters in the streets of Cairo was one of anger. Many who believed that Mubarak would announce his departure broke into chants of, "Leave now!" upon hearing his words. The unrest - sometimes violent - that has gripped Egypt for 17 days appeared poised to erupt again after the broadcast.


Statement of President Barack Obama on Egypt

February 10, 2011

The Egyptian people have been told that there was a transition of authority, but it is not yet clear that this transition is immediate, meaningful or sufficient. Too many Egyptians remain unconvinced that the government is serious about a genuine transition to democracy, and it is the responsibility of the government to speak clearly to the Egyptian people and the world. The Egyptian government must put forward a credible, concrete and unequivocal path toward genuine democracy, and they have not yet seized that opportunity.

As we have said from the beginning of this unrest, the future of Egypt will be determined by the Egyptian people. But the United States has also been clear that we stand for a set of core principles. We believe that the universal rights of the Egyptian people must be respected, and their aspirations must be met. We believe that this transition must immediately demonstrate irreversible political change, and a negotiated path to democracy. To that end, we believe that the emergency law should be lifted. We believe that meaningful negotiations with the broad opposition and Egyptian civil society should address the key questions confronting Egypt’s future: protecting the fundamental rights of all citizens; revising the Constitution and other laws to demonstrate irreversible change; and jointly developing a clear roadmap to elections that are free and fair.

We therefore urge the Egyptian government to move swiftly to explain the changes that have been made, and to spell out in clear and unambiguous language the step by step process that will lead to democracy and the representative government that the Egyptian people seek. Going forward, it will be essential that the universal rights of the Egyptian people be respected. There must be restraint by all parties. Violence must be forsaken. It is imperative that the government not respond to the aspirations of their people with repression or brutality. The voices of the Egyptian people must be heard.

The Egyptian people have made it clear that there is no going back to the way things were: Egypt has changed, and its future is in the hands of the people. Those who have exercised their right to peaceful assembly represent the greatness of the Egyptian people, and are broadly representative of Egyptian society. We have seen young and old, rich and poor, Muslim and Christian join together, and earn the respect of the world through their non-violent calls for change. In that effort, young people have been at the forefront, and a new generation has emerged. They have made it clear that Egypt must reflect their hopes, fulfill their highest aspirations, and tap their boundless potential. In these difficult times, I know that the Egyptian people will persevere, and they must know that they will continue to have a friend in the United States of America.


Defiant Mubarak Refuses to Resign

Al Jazeera

Egyptian president vows to remain in office until his term ends in September, and not bow down to 'foreign pressure'.

Rawya Rageh, Al Jazeera's correspondent in Liberation Square said the "mood completely altered as the president progressed with his speech", with protesters expressing "frustration and anger" at him. Hundreds took off their shoes and waved them angrily at a screen showing Mubarak's speech, shouting "Leave, leave!" READ MORE

Obama: "We Are Witnessing History In Egypt"

President Barack Obama declared that a "transformation" is taking hold in Egypt as reports said President Hosni Mubarak was on the verge of stepping down. "We are witnessing history unfold," Obama said. "The people of Egypt are calling for change."

"America will continue to do everything we can to support an orderly and genuine transition to democracy in Egypt," he added.


Army Commander Tells Protesters Their Demands Will Be Met Today

Maggie Michael, Associated Press

Egypt's military announced on national television that it stepped in to "safeguard the country" and assured protesters that President Hosni Mubarak will meet their demands in the strongest indication yet that the longtime leader has lost power. In Washington, the CIA chief said there was a "strong likelihood" Mubarak will step down Thursday.

State TV says President Hosni Mubarak will speak to the nation Thursday night from his palace in Cairo. READ MORE


Hosni Mubarak 'May Step Down'

Al Jazeera

Hassam Badrawi, the secretary general of the ruling National Democratic Party, told the BBC and Channel 4 News on that he expected Mubarak to hand over his powers to Omar Suleiman, the vice-president.

The Reuters news agency quoted Leon Panetta, the director of the American Central Intelligence Agency, as saying there was a "strong likelihood" that Mubarak would quit on Thursday night.  READ MORE


28 Hours in the Dark Heart of Egypt's
Torture Machine

Robert Tait, Guardian UK

Editor's Note: The violent crackdown by the Egyptian police was on display for the whole world to see. What we are not seeing is what is happening to the protesters after they are arrested and detained in Mubarak's torture chambers. The following report is from a journalist who was detained for 28 hours: he was blindfolded, but heard the torture taking place all around him. -- smg/RSN

A hail of vicious punches and kicks rained down on the prone bodies next to me, creating loud thumps. The torturers screamed abuse all around me. Only later were their chilling words translated to me by an Arabic-speaking colleague: "In this hotel, there are only two items on the menu for those who don't behave – electrocution and rape." READ MORE


Sit-Ins at Egypt's Parliament


Egypt's Army 'Involved In Detentions and Torture'

Chris McGreal, Guardian UK

The Egyptian military has secretly detained hundreds and possibly thousands of suspected government opponents since mass protests against President Hosni Mubarak began, and at least some of these detainees have been tortured, according to testimony gathered by the Guardian.

The Guardian has spoken to detainees who say they have suffered extensive beatings and other abuses at the hands of the military in what appears to be an organised campaign of intimidation. Human rights groups have documented the use of electric shocks on some of those held by the army. READ MORE


Wael Ghonim's Interview - Intro


Wael Ghonim's Interview Part 1


Wael Ghonim's Interview Part 2


Freed Young Leader Energizes Egyptian Protests

Sarah El Deeb and Maggie Michael, Associated Press

A young Google executive who helped ignite Egypt's uprising energized a cheering crowd of hundreds of thousands Tuesday with his first appearance in their midst after being released from 12 days in secret detention. "We won't give up," he promised at one of the biggest protests yet in Cairo's Tahrir Square.

Once a behind-the-scenes Internet activist, 30-year-old Wael Ghonim has emerged as an inspiring voice for a movement that has taken pride in being a leaderless "people's revolution." Now, the various activists behind it - including Ghonim - are working to coalesce into representatives to push their demands for President Hosni Mubarak's ouster. READ MORE


Youth Continue to Flock to Tahrir Square


Activist's Tears May Be Game Changer in Egypt

Marwa Awad and Andrew Hammond, Reuters

One man's tears provided a new impetus on Tuesday to protesters in Egypt seeking to keep up momentum in their campaign, now in its third week, to topple President Hosni Mubarak.

"Ghonim's tears have moved millions and turned around the views of those who supported (Mubarak) staying," website wrote two hours after Ghonim's TV appearance. In that short span, 70,000 people had signed up to Facebook pages supporting him. READ MORE

Protests Swell at Tahrir Square

Al Jazeera

Thousands of pro-democracy demonstrators have poured into Cairo's Tahrir (Liberation) Square as protests against Hosni Mubarak, the Egyptian president, entered the fifteenth day despite a slew of concessions announced by the government.

Tens of thousands of protesters have also come out on the streets in Alexandria, Egypt's second largest city. READ MORE


Al Jazeera: Protesters: "Mubarak Must Go"


Tuesday's Protests in Alexandria


Egypt Protests: 'Sunday of the Martyrs' -
In Pictures

Guardian UK

Thousands of anti-government protesters gathered again in Cairo's Tahrir Square for a 13th day of demonstrations they called 'Sunday of the Martyrs.' VIEW PHOTO GALLERY


Ordinary Egyptians Feel the Pinch


Egypt's New Cabinet Meets as Protests Continue

Kim Murphy and Raja Abdulrahim, Los Angeles Times

Egypt's newly appointed cabinet met Monday as the government attempted to reassert stability over the turbulent country with protesters in Cairo's Tahrir Square continuing to resist the new administration.

The cabinet met without the widely despised former Interior Minister, Habib al-Adly -- replaced by another police general, Mahmud Wagdi -- and some signs of freedom were becoming apparent for the large number of protesters detained over the past two weeks. READ MORE


Suleiman's Concessions Don't Go Far Enough

Chris McGreal and Julian Borger, Guardian UK

The Egyptian government has offered a series of concessions at the first talks with opposition groups, including the Islamist Muslim Brotherhood, in an attempt to end the mass pro-democracy protests across the country.

But opposition leaders said that Egypt's vice-president and longtime intelligence chief, Omar Suleiman, did not go far enough in his proposals for greater political freedom and pledge of free elections. READ MORE


Conversation With a Protester


Muslim Brotherhood Enters Talks With Suleiman


Leadership of Egypt's Ruling Party Resigns

Timothy M. Phelps, Ned Parker, Laura King, Jeffrey Fleishman and Paul Richter, Los Angeles Times

The top leadership of Egypt's governing National Democratic Party, which has long been synonymous with corruption and rigged elections, resigned Saturday as the regime struggled to convince the country it was instituting change while still holding onto power.

Among those who resigned was President Hosni Mubarak's son Gamal, who was once thought by some Egyptians to be his likely successor.

The dismantling of the party's power structure is a dramatic indication of the pressure on Vice President Omar Suleiman to purge the vestiges of Mubarak's power and snip the ambitions of his son. READ MORE


West Backs Gradual Egyptian Transition

Kareem Fahim and Mark Landler, The New York Times

The United States and leading European nations on Saturday threw their weight behind a gradual transition in Egypt, backing attempts by the country's vice president, Omar Suleiman, to negotiate with opposition groups without immediately removing President Hosni Mubarak from power. READ MORE


AP: More Mass Protests in Egypt
Push Mubarak to Go


Video Helped Trigger Massive Anti-Mubarak Protests

Asmaa Mahfouz


Equal Rights Takes to the Barricades

Mona El-Naggar, The New York Times

A passionate speech on video posted to Facebook on January 18 by Egyptian human rights activist Asmaa Mahfouz motivated protesters to gather in Cairo's Tahrir Square on January 25, sparking a massive movement against President Hosni Mubarak.

"Don't think you can be safe any more. None of us are. Come down with us and demand your rights, my rights, your family's rights. I am going down on January 25th, and will say 'No to corruption. No to this regime.'" READ MORE


Egyptian Government Figures Join Protesters

David D. Kirkpatrick, The New York Times

Cracks in the Egyptian establishment’s support for President Hosni Mubarak began to appear Friday as jubilant crowds of hundreds of thousands packed the capital’s central Tahrir Square to call for his ouster, this time unmolested by either security police or uniformed Mubarak loyalists.While ousting Mr. Mubarak remained the principal objective of the throngs in the square, leaders of the protest movement began grappling with the question of what might come next, hoping to avoid repeating history and handing power to another military-backed president for life. READ MORE


Al-Jazeera's Offices Torched Amid Egypt Unrest

The Associated Press

Al-Jazeera's offices in Cairo were stormed and torched and its website hacked Friday, the Arab broadcaster said, as a top U.N. rights official called attacks on journalists "a blatant attempt to stifle news" about pro-democracy protest.

The Qatar-based television network Al-Jazeera said its Cairo office was burned along with the equipment inside it, and called the attack an attempt by Egypt's regime or its supporters to hinder its coverage of the uprising in Egypt. READ MORE


Tamer Shaaban's Youtube Video -
Egyptian Revolution 2011

US Student Tamer Shaaban's video, a snapshot of the Egypt protests
on January 25, has accumulated nearly 2 million views on YouTube.

"We will not be silenced, whether you're Christian, whether you're a Muslim, whether you're an atheist, you will demand your goddamn rights, and we will have our rights, one way or the other! We will never be silenced!"

"Here is the blood, there is the terrorism X2"

"It's blood, There is the government."


"I Will Not Leave"


Crowds Surge for 'Day of Departure'

David D. Kirkpatrick and Alan Cowell, The New York Times

Defying a wider government crackdown, tens of thousands of Egyptians packed Cairo's central Tahrir Square on Friday, chanting slogans, bowing in prayer and waving Egyptian flags to press a campaign for the removal of President Hosni Mubarak that has transfixed the Arab world and tested American diplomacy.

Some carried baskets of bread, food and water for those who camped out in the central square overnight after days of running battles, apparently anticipating a long siege to urge the president to depart and seeking to maintain the momentum of their protests at one of Egypt's most decisive moments since the 1952 revolution that toppled the monarchy. READ MORE


List of Online Resources on Egypt and Tunisia

Institute for Public Accuracy

With major protests underway the Egyptian government late Thursday cut off the internet. People are finding some ways of overcoming this, here is a partial list of resources. Egypt is 7 hours ahead of US EST. READ MORE


Democracy Now! - The Egyptian Revolution

Democracy Now!

The latest news and commentary on Egypt from Democracy Now! READ MORE


US Discussing Mubarak Resignation With Egypt

Sheldon Alberts, Ottawa Citizen

In the moments before Barack Obama addressed the United States Tuesday night about the crisis in Egypt, veteran CNN political sage David Gergen issued a prescient warning to the US president.

"I'm not sure what he can do to help in this situation," Gergen said. He was right.

Less than 12 hours after Obama assured Americans that Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak "recognizes" the need for dramatic change, the 82-year-old dictator's supporters unleashed a wave of violence that so far, has left 10 dead and 800 injured.

The tumult and thuggery has not only laid bare the tactics a desperate despot is willing to deploy to maintain control - analysts say it has also shown the limits of US power over an ally once considered America's strongest in the Arab world. READ MORE


Rallies In Support of Mubarak Draw Thousands


Obama Administration Discussing Plan for Mubarak to Quit Immediately

Helene Cooper and Mark Landler, The New York Times

The Obama administration is discussing with Egyptian officials a proposal for President Hosni Mubarak to resign immediately, turning over power to a transitional government headed by Vice President Omar Suleiman with the support of the Egyptian military, administration officials and Arab diplomats said Thursday.

Even though Mr. Mubarak has balked, so far, at leaving now, officials from both governments are continuing talks about a plan in which, Mr. Suleiman, backed by Sami Enan, chief of the Egyptian armed forces, and Field Marshal Mohamed Tantawi, the Defense Minister, would immediately begin a process of constitutional reform.

The proposal also calls for the transitional government to invite members from a broad range of opposition groups, including the banned Muslim Brotherhood, to begin work to open up the country's electoral system in an effort to bring about free and fair elections in September, the officials said. READ MORE


Biden Tells Egyptian Leader Must Stop Violence

Steve Holland and Susan Cornwell, Reuters

Vice President Joe Biden made a direct appeal to his Egyptian counterpart on Thursday to ensure peaceful protests in Egypt do not lead to violence and US lawmakers called for a speedy change in power in Egypt./p>

With signs pointing toward a new spasm of confrontation in Cairo on Friday, Biden telephoned Egyptian Vice President Omar Suleiman to call for "restraint by all sides" and urge the release of detained journalists and human rights advocates.

"He stressed that the Egyptian government is responsible for ensuring that peaceful demonstrations don't lead to violence and intimidation," the White House said.

US lawmakers called on Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak to transfer power to an inclusive caretaker government in a Senate resolution that went slightly beyond President Barack Obama's public position. READ MORE


All-Out Witch-Hunt Against Media,
Reporters Without Borders Is Horrified

Reporters Without Borders

Reporters Without Borders is horrified by what appears to be an all-out witch-hunt against news media that are covering events in Egypt and is very concerned for all the journalists currently in Cairo, especially on the eve of a major demonstration planned by President Hosni Mubarak's opponents for tomorrow, which they are describing as the deadline for his departure.

"Theft, violence, arbitrary arrests and extreme violence ... the list of abuses against journalists by President Mubarak's supporters is getting longer by the hour and they are clearly systematic and concerted," Reporters Without Borders secretary-general Jean-François Julliard said. READ MORE


Egypt Chaos: Dozens of Reporters Beaten, Arrested

Maggie Michael, Associated Press

Menacing gangs backing President Hosni Mubarak attacked journalists and human rights activists Thursday in an ugly turn in Egypt's crisis as government opponents pushed supporters out of Cairo's main square in a second day of battles. Organizers called for protesters trying to topple the regime to fill every square in the huge capital on Friday.

The new vice president, widely considered the first successor Mubarak has ever designated, fueled anti-foreign sentiment by going on state television and blaming outsiders for fomenting unrest. The government has accused media outlets of being sympathetic to protesters who want the president to quit now rather than serve out his term, as he has vowed to do. READ MORE


Hackers Shut Down Egypt's Government Sites

Ravi Somaiya, The New York Times

The online group Anonymous said Wednesday that it had paralyzed the Egyptian government's Web sites in support of the anti-government protests. Anonymous, a loosely defined group of hackers from all over the world, gathered about 500 supporters in online forums and used software tools to bring down the sites of the Ministry of Information and President Hosni Mubarak's National Democratic Party, said Gregg Housh, a member of the group who disavows any illegal activity himself. The sites were unavailable Wednesday afternoon.

The attacks, Mr. Housh said, are part of a wider campaign that Anonymous has mounted in support of the antigovernment protests that have roiled the Arab world. READ MORE


Mubarak Says He 'Wants to Go'

Al Jazeera

Hosni Mubarak, the Egyptian president, has said in an interview to America's ABC News that he is "fed up" and wants "to go" after 62 years in public service.

However, he fears the consequences if he were to quit immediately, saying his resignation would bring chaos to Egypt.

Protesters demanding an end to Mubarak's 30-year rule continue to clash with his supporters on the streets of Cairo. The uprising has been blamed on poverty, corruption and recession.

"I am fed up. After 62 years in public service, I have had enough. I want to go," Mubarak said during Thursday's interview with ABC's Christiane Amanpour. READ MORE


Gangs Hunt Journalists and Rights Workers

David D. Kirkpatrick and J. David Goodman, The New York Times

The report begins: "Security forces and gangs chanting in favor of the Egyptian government hunted down journalists at their offices and in the hotels where many had taken refuge on Thursday in a widespread and overt campaign of intimidation aimed at suppressing reports from the capital.

By evening, it appeared that none of the major broadcasters were able to provide live footage of Tahrir Square, the epicenter of anti-government protests. Al Jazeera and Al Arabiya television networks said their journalists had been hounded from the street and from the vantage points above the square where cameras had been placed, and both CNN and BBC appeared to be relying only on taped footage of the square. Jon Williams of the BBC said via Twitter that Egyptian security had seized the news agency's equipment from the Cairo Hilton "in an attempt to stop us broadcasting." READ MORE


CBS's Lara Logan and Crew Detained in Cairo by Egyptian Police

TIME NewsFeed

Sources had told TIME Magazine that Lara Logan, chief foreign affairs correspondent for CBS News, has been detained along with her crew by Egyptian police outside Cairo's Israeli embassy.

This detention comes only a day after Logan herself reported on the intensified efforts of the Mubarak regime to clamp down on foreign journalists covering the ongoing protests. READ MORE


Crackdown Widens to Foreign Observers

Anthony Shadid and David D. Kirkpatrick, The New York Times

Moving against foreign media and human rights workers, the Egyptian government began an effort to remove witnesses to its battle with protesters. READ MORE


Egyptian Army Disperses Mubarak Supporters From Bridge

Peter Beaumont and Jack Shenker, Guardian UK

The Egyptian army intervened this morning in a belated attempt to end the violence that flared overnight in central Cairo as supporters of President Hosni Mubarak attacked anti-government protesters.

The intervention came as a retired Egyptian army general told the BBC the military was losing patience with the embattled Mubarak, and would open fire at regime loyalists if there were fresh attacks on protesters. READ MORE


Live From Egypt:
The True Face of the Mubarak Regime

Sharif Abdel Kouddous, Democracy Now!

Egypt’s popular uprising had come under a heavy and brutal assault nine days after it began. This was the true face of the U.S.-backed Mubarak regime that had repressed the Egyptian people for so many years. But this time, the whole world was watching.

While many pro-democracy demonstrators left Tahrir for the safety of their homes, a significant number remain inside, vowing not to leave until Mubarak does. It remains to be seen how the protesters will respond but Friday will undoubtedly be a decisive day. READ MORE


Amy Goodman | When Corporations Choose Despots Over Democracy

Amy Goodman, Truthdig

"People holding a sign 'To: America. From: the Egyptian People. Stop supporting Mubarak. It's over!" so tweeted my brave colleague, "Democracy Now!" senior producer Sharif Abdel Kouddous, from the streets of Cairo.

More than 2 million people rallied throughout Egypt on Tuesday, most of them crowded into Cairo's Tahrir Square. Tahrir, which means liberation in Arabic, has become the epicenter of what appears to be a largely spontaneous, leaderless and peaceful revolution in this, the most populous nation in the Middle East. Defying a military curfew, this incredible uprising has been driven by young Egyptians, who compose a majority of the 80 million citizens. Twitter and Facebook, and SMS text messaging on cell phones, have helped this new generation to link up and organize, despite living under a U.S.-supported dictatorship for the past three decades. In response, the Mubarak regime, with the help of U.S. and European corporations, has shut down the Internet and curtailed cellular service, plunging Egypt into digital darkness. Despite the shutdown, as media activist and professor of communications C.W. Anderson told me, "people make revolutions, not technology."READ MORE


Army Moves to Stop Clashes in Cairo Square

Ned Parker and Laura King, Los Angeles Times

Clashes flared for a second day Thursday between opponents and supporters of President Hosni Mubarak, spilling out of the central Cairo square occupied by antigovernment demonstrators and deepening the chaos gripping Egypt.

The army acted decisively for the first time to try to separate the two sides, planting tanks and soldiers in the no-man's land between what have become enemy lines. In the early afternoon, as helicopters circled overhead, the fighting was scattered and less intense than the previous day.

Confrontations were confined mainly to the periphery of Tahrir Square and the backstreets of the adjoining district, with relative calm in much the sprawling plaza itself. But a potentially larger confrontation loomed Friday, the main prayer day of the Muslim week, when protest organizers have called for a redoubling of efforts to force Mubarak to step aside.


CNN: Who Are the Pro-Mubarak Demonstrators?

The CNN Wire Staff

The report begins: "For more than a week, opponents of Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak had the upper hand in Cairo, protesting with near impunity in the face of police and an army that did little to stop them.

That all changed on Wednesday.

The morning after Mubarak dramatically announced he would not run for re-election in September, his supporters waded into Tahrir Square by the thousands, and suddenly, serious, prolonged violence reigned in central Cairo." READ MORE


Getting In Line for a Revolution

Sharmine Narwani, Al Jazeera

Movements for democratization are springing up in many Arab countries - one by one the queue increases.

The protests that originally started in Tunisia galvanized the Egyptians into action, which is having a spillover effect pouring into other countries throughout North Africa, the Gulf and the Levant [CC - Ahmad Hammoud] What is interesting about the tsunamis of change cascading through the Middle East this past month is that the "dumb, undeserving-of-democracy" Arab masses have turned out to be magnificently savvy, efficient, focused and determined in flipping over longstanding dictatorships.

And it turns out they are polite too. Arab populations from North Africa, the Levant and the Persian Gulf have now, quite organically it seems, devised a wait-your-turn system for overthrowing the Middle East's iron-fisted leaders.

Opposition groups and ordinary citizens have taken to the streets in Yemen, Jordan, Palestine, Bahrain and Algeria recently to air their grievances and demand change. But they are not going full throttle quite yet. First, they are waiting for their brothers and sisters in Egypt to finish, as Egyptians did when Tunisians were focused on overthrowing the 23-year-old dictatorship of now deposed president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali. READ MORE your social media marketing partner
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