RSN Fundraising Banner
FB Share
Email This Page
add comment
Print

Excerpt: "The British spy agency collects and stores vast quantities of global email messages, Facebook posts, internet histories and calls, and shares them with NSA, latest documents from Edward Snowden reveal."

Aerial view of the GCHQ spybase in Cheltenham, Gloucestershire. (photo: BBC)
Aerial view of the GCHQ spybase in Cheltenham, Gloucestershire. (photo: BBC)


Snowden Files: Brit Spy Agency Database Dwarfs NSA's

By Ewen MacAskill, Julian Borger, Nick Hopkins, Nick Davies and James Ball, Guardian UK

22 June 13

 

British spy agency collects and stores vast quantities of global email messages, Facebook posts, internet histories and calls, and shares them with NSA, latest documents from Edward Snowden reveal.

ritain's spy agency GCHQ has secretly gained access to the network of cables which carry the world's phone calls and internet traffic and has started to process vast streams of sensitive personal information which it is sharing with its American partner, the National Security Agency (NSA).

The sheer scale of the agency's ambition is reflected in the titles of its two principal components: Mastering the Internet and Global Telecoms Exploitation, aimed at scooping up as much online and telephone traffic as possible. This is all being carried out without any form of public acknowledgement or debate.

One key innovation has been GCHQ's ability to tap into and store huge volumes of data drawn from fibre-optic cables for up to 30 days so that it can be sifted and analysed. That operation, codenamed Tempora, has been running for some 18 months.

GCHQ and the NSA are consequently able to access and process vast quantities of communications between entirely innocent people, as well as targeted suspects.

This includes recordings of phone calls, the content of email messages, entries on Facebook and the history of any internet user's access to websites - all of which is deemed legal, even though the warrant system was supposed to limit interception to a specified range of targets.

The existence of the programme has been disclosed in documents shown to the Guardian by the NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden as part of his attempt to expose what he has called "the largest programme of suspicionless surveillance in human history".

"It's not just a US problem. The UK has a huge dog in this fight," Snowden told the Guardian. "They [GCHQ] are worse than the US."

However, on Friday a source with knowledge of intelligence argued that the data was collected legally under a system of safeguards, and had provided material that had led to significant breakthroughs in detecting and preventing serious crime.

Britain's technical capacity to tap into the cables that carry the world's communications - referred to in the documents as special source exploitation - has made GCHQ an intelligence superpower.

By 2010, two years after the project was first trialled, it was able to boast it had the "biggest internet access" of any member of the Five Eyes electronic eavesdropping alliance, comprising the US, UK, Canada, Australia and New Zealand.

UK officials could also claim GCHQ "produces larger amounts of metadata than NSA". (Metadata describes basic information on who has been contacting whom, without detailing the content.)

By May last year 300 analysts from GCHQ, and 250 from the NSA, had been assigned to sift through the flood of data.

The Americans were given guidelines for its use, but were told in legal briefings by GCHQ lawyers: "We have a light oversight regime compared with the US".

When it came to judging the necessity and proportionality of what they were allowed to look for, would-be American users were told it was "your call".

The Guardian understands that a total of 850,000 NSA employees and US private contractors with top secret clearance had access to GCHQ databases.

The documents reveal that by last year GCHQ was handling 600m "telephone events" each day, had tapped more than 200 fibre-optic cables and was able to process data from at least 46 of them at a time.

Each of the cables carries data at a rate of 10 gigabits per second, so the tapped cables had the capacity, in theory, to deliver more than 21 petabytes a day - equivalent to sending all the information in all the books in the British Library 192 times every 24 hours.

And the scale of the programme is constantly increasing as more cables are tapped and GCHQ data storage facilities in the UK and abroad are expanded with the aim of processing terabits (thousands of gigabits) of data at a time.

For the 2 billion users of the world wide web, Tempora represents a window on to their everyday lives, sucking up every form of communication from the fibre-optic cables that ring the world.

The NSA has meanwhile opened a second window, in the form of the Prism operation, revealed earlier this month by the Guardian, from which it secured access to the internal systems of global companies that service the internet.

The GCHQ mass tapping operation has been built up over five years by attaching intercept probes to transatlantic fibre-optic cables where they land on British shores carrying data to western Europe from telephone exchanges and internet servers in north America.

This was done under secret agreements with commercial companies, described in one document as "intercept partners".

The papers seen by the Guardian suggest some companies have been paid for the cost of their co-operation and GCHQ went to great lengths to keep their names secret. They were assigned "sensitive relationship teams" and staff were urged in one internal guidance paper to disguise the origin of "special source" material in their reports for fear that the role of the companies as intercept partners would cause "high-level political fallout".

The source with knowledge of intelligence said on Friday the companies were obliged to co-operate in this operation. They are forbidden from revealing the existence of warrants compelling them to allow GCHQ access to the cables.

"There's an overarching condition of the licensing of the companies that they have to co-operate in this. Should they decline, we can compel them to do so. They have no choice."

The source said that although GCHQ was collecting a "vast haystack of data" what they were looking for was "needles".

"Essentially, we have a process that allows us to select a small number of needles in a haystack. We are not looking at every piece of straw. There are certain triggers that allow you to discard or not examine a lot of data so you are just looking at needles. If you had the impression we are reading millions of emails, we are not. There is no intention in this whole programme to use it for looking at UK domestic traffic - British people talking to each other," the source said.

He explained that when such "needles" were found a log was made and the interception commissioner could see that log.

"The criteria are security, terror, organised crime. And economic well-being. There's an auditing process to go back through the logs and see if it was justified or not. The vast majority of the data is discarded without being looked at ... we simply don't have the resources."

However, the legitimacy of the operation is in doubt. According to GCHQ's legal advice, it was given the go-ahead by applying old law to new technology. The 2000 Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act (Ripa) requires the tapping of defined targets to be authorised by a warrant signed by the home secretary or foreign secretary.

However, an obscure clause allows the foreign secretary to sign a certificate for the interception of broad categories of material, as long as one end of the monitored communications is abroad. But the nature of modern fibre-optic communications means that a proportion of internal UK traffic is relayed abroad and then returns through the cables.

Parliament passed the Ripa law to allow GCHQ to trawl for information, but it did so 13 years ago with no inkling of the scale on which GCHQ would attempt to exploit the certificates, enabling it to gather and process data regardless of whether it belongs to identified targets.

The categories of material have included fraud, drug trafficking and terrorism, but the criteria at any one time are secret and are not subject to any public debate. GCHQ's compliance with the certificates is audited by the agency itself, but the results of those audits are also secret.

An indication of how broad the dragnet can be was laid bare in advice from GCHQ's lawyers, who said it would be impossible to list the total number of people targeted because "this would be an infinite list which we couldn't manage".

There is an investigatory powers tribunal to look into complaints that the data gathered by GCHQ has been improperly used, but the agency reassured NSA analysts in the early days of the programme, in 2009: "So far they have always found in our favour".

Historically, the spy agencies have intercepted international communications by focusing on microwave towers and satellites. The NSA's intercept station at Menwith Hill in North Yorkshire played a leading role in this. One internal document quotes the head of the NSA, Lieutenant General Keith Alexander, on a visit to Menwith Hill in June 2008, asking: "Why can't we collect all the signals all the time? Sounds like a good summer project for Menwith."

By then, however, satellite interception accounted for only a small part of the network traffic. Most of it now travels on fibre-optic cables, and the UK's position on the western edge of Europe gave it natural access to cables emerging from the Atlantic.

The data collected provides a powerful tool in the hands of the security agencies, enabling them to sift for evidence of serious crime. According to the source, it has allowed them to discover new techniques used by terrorists to avoid security checks and to identify terrorists planning atrocities. It has also been used against child exploitation networks and in the field of cyberdefence.

It was claimed on Friday that it directly led to the arrest and imprisonment of a cell in the Midlands who were planning co-ordinated attacks; to the arrest of five Luton-based individuals preparing acts of terror, and to the arrest of three London-based people planning attacks prior to the Olympics.

As the probes began to generate data, GCHQ set up a three-year trial at the GCHQ station in Bude, Cornwall. By the summer of 2011, GCHQ had probes attached to more than 200 internet links, each carrying data at 10 gigabits a second. "This is a massive amount of data!" as one internal slideshow put it. That summer, it brought NSA analysts into the Bude trials. In the autumn of 2011, it launched Tempora as a mainstream programme, shared with the Americans.

The intercept probes on the transatlantic cables gave GCHQ access to its special source exploitation. Tempora allowed the agency to set up internet buffers so it could not simply watch the data live but also store it - for three days in the case of content and 30 days for metadata.

"Internet buffers represent an exciting opportunity to get direct access to enormous amounts of GCHQ's special source data," one document explained.

The processing centres apply a series of sophisticated computer programmes in order to filter the material through what is known as MVR - massive volume reduction. The first filter immediately rejects high-volume, low-value traffic, such as peer-to-peer downloads, which reduces the volume by about 30%. Others pull out packets of information relating to "selectors" - search terms including subjects, phone numbers and email addresses of interest. Some 40,000 of these were chosen by GCHQ and 31,000 by the NSA. Most of the information extracted is "content", such as recordings of phone calls or the substance of email messages. The rest is metadata.

The GCHQ documents that the Guardian has seen illustrate a constant effort to build up storage capacity at the stations at Cheltenham, Bude and at one overseas location, as well a search for ways to maintain the agency's comparative advantage as the world's leading communications companies increasingly route their cables through Asia to cut costs. Meanwhile, technical work is ongoing to expand GCHQ's capacity to ingest data from new super cables carrying data at 100 gigabits a second. As one training slide told new users: "You are in an enviable position - have fun and make the most of it."


e-max.it: your social media marketing partner
 

Comments   

A note of caution regarding our comment sections:

For months a stream of media reports have warned of coordinated propaganda efforts targeting political websites based in the U.S., particularly in the run-up to the 2016 presidential election.

We too were alarmed at the patterns we were, and still are, seeing. It is clear that the provocateurs are far more savvy, disciplined, and purposeful than anything we have ever experienced before.

It is also clear that we still have elements of the same activity in our article discussion forums at this time.

We have hosted and encouraged reader expression since the turn of the century. The comments of our readers are the most vibrant, best-used interactive feature at Reader Supported News. Accordingly, we are strongly resistant to interrupting those services.

It is, however, important to note that in all likelihood hardened operatives are attempting to shape the dialog our community seeks to engage in.

Adapt and overcome.

Marc Ash
Founder, Reader Supported News

 
+5 # reiverpacific 2013-06-22 09:42
Shouldn't be a surprise; the UK -mostly around London, southern England and major cities, has by far the biggest per-capita "Spy camera" (CCTV) of any country on earth.
Another reason for Scotland to give Westminster the bum's rush next year (I've been against nationalism all my life as it tends to connote a right-wing nationalist heavy-handed militarist regime but it's more likely to take on a lefty socialistic public-interest format in Scotland, the only other viable party to the SNP being Labor -and NOT Tony Blair's "New" milquetoast type Labor either). From all I hear in contact with friends of all political stripes (I have NO Tory friends) over in Scotia and in the US, it's heavily favored but we'll see; it's been finked and screwed with before, most notably in 1979, by some political treachery in Westminster and Edinburgh.
This kind of heavy spying-on-the-p ublic stuff gives a whole new complexion to the formerly affectionately- coined term for the country by exiles like me, "BLIGHTy" (capitals deliberate) dunnit!?
 
 
0 # Milarepa 2013-06-22 11:02
Sweden's FRA surveillance law, which allows monitoring of all private communications, has been in effect since June 2008. The Swedish media and by extension the Swedish people, after initial protests, have accepted it and certainly don't appear to be uncomfortable with it. Of course one might argue that it doesn't really matter what the citizens of a small country like Sweden are up to.
 
 
-5 # tabonsell 2013-06-22 15:52
And maybe the Swedes are intelligent enough to realize the system excludes innocent persons immediately and only concentrates on persons where there is reasonable concrn they may be involved in criminal activities.
 
 
+3 # Nominae 2013-06-22 17:53
Quoting tabonsell:
And maybe the Swedes are intelligent enough to realize the system excludes innocent persons immediately and only concentrates on persons where there is reasonable concrn they may be involved in criminal activities.


Part I

In a Cinderella world where Governments were only spying on *proven*, or even suspected "bad guys", citizens are still being spied upon by internet corporations. This data can, of course, quickly be sold to those self-same Governments with the sterling moral codes that you propose in Cinderella Land, in a nanosecond.

In the *real* World, however, far from selling it, we are all seeing that said data is being COMPELLED from the internet corporations BY the government(s).

Both in the U.S. and the U.K.

We also know that as recently as the Chicago Convention of 2012, the FBI was arresting known political activists as "terrorists" the moment said activists arrived at Chicago hotel/motels. They were then released after the convention.

These activists and known protestors were guilty of NO CRIME.
They were not even SUSPECTED of any crime. They were simply known to attend more than one protest.

They were arrested PREEMPTIVELY. They were in the "system" due to use of FBI Facial Recognition Software at previous protest sites. This is one of the reasons that Canada has just made it illegal to wear MASKS at political protests, in spite of all their Pollyanna Pap about protecting the public .

Cont'd
 
 
0 # Nominae 2013-06-22 17:55
Part II

The reportage on the Chicago Convention of 2012 is available from "Democracy Now".

I would like to politely propose, in the midst of your Chinese Water Torture-like constant "drip, drip, drip," insistence that "NOBODY but the the 'bad guys' are being tracked" that you may benefit from doing some actual research.

Either research, or insist upon a raise in troll wages from the whomever is paying the tab for your very energetic efforts in attempting to brainwash readers with the idea that "there's nothing to see here. It is all benign. Your Global Surveillance System is here to protect you. Go back to sleep, Precious."

Because I haven't seen you miss a beat. Even in the face of TRUCKLOADS of evidence to the contrary.

To pretend that the U.S., the U.K. and others are not ALREADY abusing these surveillance machines, to pretend, indeed, that these machines were not DESIGNED for abuse as a "*feature*, not a bug" is as jaw-droppingly naive as believing that the large Wall Street and London investment banks are staffed by Mother Theresa and every other meticulously honest soul who has ever graced the planet.

The system, in short, does NOT "EXCLUDE INNOCENT PERSONS".
Be my guest, go ahead and ask OWS about that.

Did you even READ the article above ? Given the physical configurations of the hardware itself, the system *CANNOT* "exclude innocent persons". Neither can the NSA's equipment.
 
 
0 # Archie1954 2013-06-22 11:56
Now who mwould have thought that the UK could out US the US? Did you ever imagine that the Cameron government could be as fascist as the Obama one? Well did you? I mean just look at his smiling, (two faced) demeanour. Doesn't he just give you a happy feeling of being held safe by a guardian of democracy? Well at least we still have the Queen, who has outlived any number of would be despots!
 
 
+1 # Nominae 2013-06-22 17:56
Quoting Archie1954:
Now who mwould have thought that the UK could out US the US? Did you ever imagine that the Cameron government could be as fascist as the Obama one? Well did you? I mean just look at his smiling, (two faced) demeanour. Doesn't he just give you a happy feeling of being held safe by a guardian of democracy? Well at least we still have the Queen, who has outlived any number of would be despots!


Yeah ..... too bad the Queen doesn't DO anything but wave.
 
 
+2 # jwb110 2013-06-22 12:08
Different criteria, different hay stack, different needle.

Any gov't scoundrel can pick another group to label "terrorist" and bring whole communities to heal. There is the rub.

And what makes the "5" think that this technology doesn't exist for the perceived enemy. This is a Tar Baby that will get stickier and more paranoid as it continues. I want my rights and my country back!
A World Economy, bugged communication, world domination by the likes of the Koch Bros, Mitch McConnel, Boerhner, and the financial industry. None of this is an accident. It has been all carefully planned.
 
 
-6 # tabonsell 2013-06-22 14:33
Finally, RSN runs an article that tries to explain the complexity of the situation. Let's hope the terrified minions of the "Chicken Little Brigade" read it and absorb some information.

What NSA and GCHQ are doing is like a police department that discovers a massive burglary ring in town. The police don't run to the courts an ask for a warrant to search every house and business in town. It does some investigation trying to isolate suspects in the crime. When it's satisfied that it knows who's probably involved in the burglaries, it seeks a search warrant. Innocent townies are not involved and not inconvenienced.

Finally someone says it clearly: "Metadata describes basic information on who has been contacting whom, without detailing the content." That means no phone conversations are included. Only phone numbers.

And like the police department investigation, both NSA and GCHQ use a system to exclude data about innocent people by running this metadata through a computer programmed with key words to try to isolate only those who may be involved in terrorist activities. When that is done, both agencies seek a warrant to scrutinize ONLY the links that seem to belong to terrorist groups. That means the innocent are immediately excluded from any investigation.

And, like police investigation, the innocent have not been looked at or inconvenienced in any way. Their privacy remains intact and unspoiled. But some seem to be complaining about not being suspects.
 
 
+1 # Nominae 2013-06-22 18:30
[quote name="tabonsell "]... an article that tries to explain the complexity of the situation. Let's hope the terrified minions of the "Chicken Little Brigade" read it and absorb some information.

Yes, indeedy ! The "Chicken Little Brigade" being here defined as "*ANY* person not shilling for the Global Surveillance State !"

FROM THE ARTICLE ABOVE : "Tempora allowed the agency to set up internet buffers so it could not simply watch the data live but also store it - for three days in the case of content and 30 days for metadata."

Here we have an prime example of the difference between *reading* and reading *comprehension* . This article STATES that *both* metadata and *CONTENT* (VoIP, cell phone conversations, email content, etc.) *ARE* are being collected.

From tabonsell "read it and absorb some information".
INDEED ! Heed your own advice ! Then, get a kid to *interpret* what you have just read for you.

Again from the article: "For the 2 billion users of the world wide web, Tempora represents a window on to their everyday lives, sucking up every form of communication from the fibre-optic cables that ring the world."

The very accurate fact that the govts can't process that data in a DAY does not mean that they can't EVER process it, and when you have nothing but the GOV'T'S assurance that "all is well", and your data have been "*deleted* after three days", one needs to exercise *very* critical caution !
 
 
+1 # Nominae 2013-06-22 18:58
Quoting tabonsell:

Finally someone says it clearly: "Metadata describes basic information on who has been contacting whom, without detailing the content." That means no phone conversations are included. Only phone numbers.


Reading fun from the Article Above:

"Most of the information extracted is "content", such as recordings of phone calls or the substance of email messages. The rest is metadata."

tabonsell says: "only phone numbers"... ? "without detailing the content"... ? Good eye, guy ! The author doesn't AGREE !

and ONLY "bad guys" are caught up in the dragnet ?

The Article :
"an obscure clause allows the foreign secretary to sign a certificate for the interception of broad categories of material, as long as one end of the monitored communications is abroad. But the nature of modern fibre-optic communications means that a proportion of internal UK traffic is relayed abroad and then returns through the cables."

The same is true in the U.S. The Surveillance Machine CANNOT scoop in *only* the "bad guys".

The Article:

"GCHQ and the NSA are consequently able to access and process vast quantities of communications between entirely innocent people, as well as targeted suspects."

Yeah, kids, but they would NEVER use it. Just like the NDAA power to kill citizens on U.S. soil. The White house will fight to the death to maintain that "right" but they will NEVER use it.

Hey ! They SAID so ! Go back to sleep, Chicken Little !
 
 
-2 # tabonsell 2013-06-23 17:32
Nobody said it collects info on only the "bad guys".

What it does is collect all information, then uses computers and safeguards to ferret out that which seems to belong only to the "good guys." That means any information that doesn't have one end of the information abroad is DESTROYED and not seen by anyone.

That which is left and does have one end of the connection abroad is then examined under a WARRANT issued by the court.

Why is this so hard to understand?
 
 
0 # Nominae 2013-06-23 23:08
Quoting tabonsell:
..... any information that doesn't have one end of the information abroad is DESTROYED and not seen by anyone...... That which is left and does have one end of the connection abroad is then examined under a WARRANT issued by the court.

Why is this so hard to understand?


Part I

It is not difficult to understand, oh condescending one, it is simply and flat-out NOT factual. The *content* of the article above contradicts every line of your comment.

Refer to my comment(s) above where I contrast every point you make with the content of the Article itself which postulates the opposite of what you claim.

Your primary argument is not with me, but with the authors of the article. You flat-footedly contradict most of what the article reports as if you yourself have not even read it.

"There are none so blind as those that WILL NOT see."

What you espouse above is the way the system is SUPPOSED to work. What the article *reveals*, and what comes as no surprise to any adults who have been paying attention, is that the system does *NOT* function the way it's SUPPOSED to work.

Cont'd
 
 
0 # Nominae 2013-06-23 23:11
Part II

You imply that the system is not being abused. Not a week passes without some article in the news describing the ways in which the system IS being abused. These abuses, such as the Chicago Convention of 2012, you conveniently side-step and *ignore*, the better to get back to your chant regarding the way "everything is O.K., go back to sleep my darlin's ." It won't wash.

The system does NOT work in accordance with the Constitution.

Simply stamping one's feet and insisting: "does too, does too"
until you turn blue and pass out, is not representative of a well-reasoned argument,

Without going into great claims of Intel background etc. I also have military experience with classified materiel control.

What you espouse herein is standard "Party Line Pap" prepared by the Government. The pabulum prepared for public consumption. What we "tell them to keep them quiet".

If you actually had the background that you claim in this area, you would be acutely aware of this fact.

Con'td
 
 
0 # Nominae 2013-06-23 23:12
Part III

Therefore, the only logical conclusions to derive from considering your position, is either that you are intentionally perpetrating the government "song and dance", or you have yourself enthusiasticall y swallowed the cool-aid put out by the government.

So, please pursue your argument with the authors of the article, because simply saying the opposite of what is reported is not a convincing argument for me or other readers.

"Does too - does not" is not reasoned argumentation. It is childish sandbox bickering, and a stupendous waste of time.
 
 
+2 # gd_radical 2013-06-23 10:44
[quote name="tabonsell "]Finally, RSN runs an article that tries to explain the complexity of the situation. Let's hope the terrified minions of the "Chicken Little Brigade" read it and absorb some information.

"The only sure bulwark of continuing liberty is a government strong enough to protect the interests of the people, and a people strong enough and well enough informed to maintain its sovereign control over the government."
Franklin D. Roosevelt
 
 
-3 # tabonsell 2013-06-23 17:40
You are absolutely correct.

The problem on this NSA controversy is the American public is not well enough informed to have any realistic conclusions. And it appears RSN fans don't want to be well informed.

As an example; it seems readers of RSN don't know the difference between "collect" and "gather."

So they called the director of intelligence a liar and called for his imprisonment when he said NSA doesn't collect date on Americans. It doesn't, because "collect" means to retain as in a collection. He was never asked if NSA gathers information on Americans. It obviously does because that can't be separated out in the "gathering" process. It is weeded out and destroyed by computer. So it is gathered but not collected, a distinction that is lost on the Chicken Little Brigade.
 
 
+1 # Nominae 2013-06-23 23:36
Quoting tabonsell:


It is weeded out and destroyed by computer. So it is gathered but not collected, a distinction that is lost on the Chicken Little Brigade.


tabonsell: "It is weeded out and destroyed by computer."

Your source for this ? Bcuz the Gov't SAID SO ?

tabonsell: "So it is gathered but not collected,"

Bureaucratic parsing at it's best, and still no source quoted other than "Trust Me". The distinction between the words is valid, it is the ARGUMENT that is logically invalid, because it assumes a "FACT NOT IN EVIDENCE". Just SAYING that the gathered data is being deleted SAYS nothing. Why do you think we need a center the size of which is being built in Utah ? To contain our "deleted data"?

tabonsell: "a distinction that is lost on the Chicken Little Brigade."

Sounds very like : "If you don't believe everything I tell you, I will indulge in calling you childish names that I didn't even make up myself.

Definition: "Chicken Little Brigade" Anyone not aggressively engaged in shilling for the Global Surveillance Machine, or someone too young to remember that the Government has been openly lying to the public since before the Viet Nam War, thru the Iraq War, and right up to this very day.

Apparently it is hoped that bombing with the "Pixie-Dust" of second-grade name-calling will wipe out that public wisdom if only the Pixie Dust is applied in sufficient quantity, and with Goebbels-like repetition.

This isn't 1939.
 
 
+2 # gd_radical 2013-06-23 10:58
"They who can give up essential liberty to obtain a little temporary safety deserve neither liberty nor safety."
Benjamin Franklin

To live in fear is allowing the very people who are wreaking the violence to claim victory. I would rather lay choking in a pool of my own blood than submit to tyranny. Too many brave and courageous young men and woman have taken their last breath to defending our freedom. To submit now to corporatism and fascism besmirches their ultimate sacrifice. And by the way, I'm not advocating armed revolution. Gandhi, MLK, Mandela have shown us the power of mass movements of nonviolent, civil disobedience. Let the movement begin!
 

THE NEW STREAMLINED RSN LOGIN PROCESS: Register once, then login and you are ready to comment. All you need is a Username and a Password of your choosing and you are free to comment whenever you like! Welcome to the Reader Supported News community.

RSNRSN